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The Rushmore Report: America’s 12 Smartest Presidents

The University of California at Davis has produced a fascinating list. Psychology professor Dean Simonton completed a comprehensive study examining the “intellectual brilliance of our presidents.” When available, IQs were considered. Other traits such as “wise,” “inventive,” and “insightful” went into the mix. Here’s your list – America’s smartest presidents.

12. Franklin D. Roosevelt

With an estimated IQ of 146, Roosevelt attended Harvard University and Columbia Law School. Though diagnosed with polio in 1921, he went on to win the White House in 1932, and then three more times. He is best remembered for the New Deal, a comprehensive economic overhaul.

11. Abraham Lincoln

The son of a Kentucky frontiersman, Lincoln worked on a farm and split rails for fences while teaching himself to read and write. He had an IQ of 148 and was the only president to have a patent after inventing a device to free steamboats that ran aground.

10. Chester Arthur

The 21st president succeeded James Garfield after he was assassinated in 1881. He had a reported IQ of 148. A graduate of Union College, he practiced law in New York City before being elected Vice President. He distinguished himself as a reformer, overhauling the civil service.

9. James Garfield

Though serving less than one year, Garfield had a major impact. He re-energized the Navy, did away with corruption in the Post Office Department, and appointed several African-Americans to prominent federal positions. He was killed 200 days into office.

8. Theodore Roosevelt

Elected the youngest President to date, the 43-year-old maverick was a graduate of Harvard. Famous for his statement, “Speak softly and carry a big stick,” Roosevelt was recognized as a great leader. His IQ was 149.

7. Woodrow Wilson

The leader of the Progressive Movement had an IQ of 152. Wilson served as President of Princeton University before being elected Governor of New Jersey. His famous speech, “14 Points,” is credited for laying the groundwork for the United Nations.

6. Jimmy Carter

Winner of the Noble Peace Prize for his work in advancing human rights around the world, Carter was a graduate of the Naval Academy. His successes as the 39th president include a national energy policy and civil service reform.

5. James Madison

With an estimated IQ of 155, Madison was a graduate of Princeton and a co-author of the Bill of Rights. He served as Thomas Jefferson’s Secretary of State for eight years before being elected President.

4. Bill Clinton

The 42nd president has an IQ of 156. After graduating from Georgetown, he won a Rhodes Scholarship to Oxford and earned a law degree from Yale. He was elected Governor of Arkansas five times. As President, he brokered peace in Ireland and the Balkans.

3. John F. Kennedy

With an IQ of 158, Kennedy was a Harvard graduate and member of the U.S. Navy in World War II. He offered one of the most memorable inaugural addresses, saying, “Ask not what your country can do for you – ask what you can do for your country.” Under his leadership, the U.S. economy expanded and civil rights legislation was written.

2. Thomas Jefferson

The third President’s estimated IQ was 160. A graduate of William and Mary, Jefferson studied law. Though a poor speaker, he was brilliant. His opposition to a strong centralized government set the template that would separate America from other emerging countries.

1. John Adams

Serving as our second President from 1797 to 1801, after serving as George Washington’s Vice President, Adams had an estimated IQ of 173. He studied law at Harvard and was an early supporter of the movement for U.S. independence from the British. Ambitious and intellectual – if not a little vain – he frequently complained to his wife that the office of Vice President was insignificant. He may be best remembered for his skills in diplomacy, helping to negotiate a peace treaty during the Revolutionary War and avoiding a war with France during his Presidency.

 

The Rushmore Report: The Man Who Saved the Union

He was a 34-year-old school teacher, but on the hot, humid day of July 2, 1863, Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain was in the fight of his life. Now a Colonel in the Union Army. Chamberlain stood at the far left edge of a group of 80,000 men strung out in a line across fields and hills, stretching all the way to a little town called Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.

Earlier that day, a Colonel Vincent had placed Chamberlain and his men of the 20th Maine at the end of that line, saying, “Whatever you do, you can’t let them come through here.”

Chamberlain couldn’t withdraw and he knew it. If the Confederate Army overran them, the rebels would gain the high ground, and the Union army would be quickly defeated. In essence, 80,000 men would be caught from behind on a downhill charge with no protection. To win, the grey clad Confederates would have to come through Chamberlain.

At 2:30 p.m., the first charge came from the 15th and 47th Alabama regiments. They attacked uphill, running as fast as they could and firing at Chamberlain’s men who were stationed behind a rock wall they had thrown up that very morning. The 20th Maine stopped the rebel charge and pushed them back down the slope . . .

Only to face a second and then a third charge.

On the fourth assault, Chamberlain was knocked down by a bullet that hit him dead center – in the belt buckle. Realizing that he wasn’t seriously hurt, the Colonel scrambled to his feet, continuing to fight. Again, they halted the enemy’s charge and again, the rebels retreated down the hill.

At that time in history, battles were fought with artillery and small arms ammunition. The struggles were close, face-to-face affairs. With their fourth charge, the Confederates almost made it to the wall – a thigh high stack of flat rocks that ran almost 110 yards in length.

As they waited for the next charge, Chamberlain felt sorry for his men. He later recalled, “Their leader had no real knowledge of warfare or tactics. I was only a stubborn man and that was my greatest advantage in this fight. I had, deep within me, the inability to do nothing.”

Chamberlain continued, “I knew I may die, but I also knew that I would not die with a bullet in my back. I would not die in retreat. I am, at least, like the apostle Paul who wrote, ‘This one thing I do, I press toward the mark.'”

The attack came again. On this, the fifth charge, the 15th and 47th Alabama broke open the wall and fighting raged on both sides. Without time to reload, the men were swinging their rifles at each other and brawling with fists and knives.

Somehow, the 20th Maine pushed the rebels downhill another time. And at that fifth broken charge, Chamberlain’s younger brother, Tom, appeared with Sergeant Tozier, an old, hard-nosed soldier. Tozier had a thick wad of torn shirt stuck into a hole in his shoulder where he had been wounded.

“No help from the 83rd,” the Sergeant said. “They’re shot to ribbons and all they can do is extend the line a bit. We’re getting murdered on our flank.”

“Can we extend?” Chamberlain asked. “There’s nothing to extend,” Tom answered. “More than half our men are down.”

It was true. Chamberlain’s command had started in Bangor, Maine, six months earlier, with a thousand men. They’d started that morning with 300. Now they were down to 80.

“How are we for ammunition?” the Colonel asked. “We’ve been shooting a lot,” was his brother’s answer. “I know we’ve been shooting a lot,” Chamberlain snapped. “I want to know how we’re holding out. How much ammunition do we have left?” As Tom ran to check, a 12-year-old lookout had climbed a tree. He yelled, “They’re forming up again, Colonel!”

Chamberlain looked up to see the boy pointing down the hill. “They’re forming up right now. And they’ve been reinforced. Sir, there’s a lot more of them this time.”

At that moment, a messenger stumbled into their midst. Out of breath, he said, “Sir! Colonel Chamberlain, sir! Colonel Vincent is dead.”

“Are you sure, soldier?”

“Yes, sir,” he gasped. “He was shot right at the first of the fight. They were firmed up by Weeds Brigade, but now Weeds is dead. They mowed Hazlett’s Battery up top. Hazlett’s dead, too.”

Chamberlain’s brother came running back. “Joshua,” he said, “We’re out! One . . . two rounds per man at the most. Some of the men don’t have anything at all!” Chamberlain turned to a thin man standing on his right. It was First Sergeant Ellis Spear. “Spear,” he ordered, “tell the boys to take the ammunition from the wounded and the dead.”

“We did that last time, sir,” Spear replied. “Maybe we should think about pulling out.”

Chamberlain responded grimly, “We will not be pulling out, Sergeant. Carry out my orders please.”

“Colonel!” Sergeant Tozier spoke up. “We won’t hold them again, sir. you know we won’t!”

“Joshua!” It was his brother. “Here they come! Here they come!”

Chamberlain stepped to the top of the wall in full view, crossing his arms and staring down at the advancing enemy. The 15th and 47th Alabama with their pale, yellow-gray uniforms, now reinforced by a Texas regiment, moved up the hill as their high pitched shriek – the rebel yell – coursed up toward Chamberlain and his men. Sergeant Spear was standing at the Colonel’s feet. Sergeant Tozier, Chamberlain’s brother Tom, and Lieutenant Melcher, the flag beaerer, were huddled below. “Joshua!” his brother said, “Do something!”

“Give an order!”

Chamberlain stood ther for a moment, deep in thought, quickly sorting the situation. “We can’t retreat,” he thought. “We can’t stay here. When I am faced with the choice of doing nothing or doing something, I will always choose to act.” He turned his back on the advancing rebels, looked down at his men, and said, “Fix bayonets!”

At first no one moved. They just stared at him with their mouths open.

“Fix your bayonets now!” he commanded again. “Execute a great right wheel of the entire regiment. Swing the left first. Do it now!”

Lieutenant Melcher spoke first, confused. “Sir,” he asked, “What is a great right wheel?” But the Colonel had already jumped from the wall and was moving to the next group of men. Serteant Tozier answered the question. “He means to charge, son. A great right wheel is an all-out charge.”

Then, turning, the Colonel pointed his sword directly downhill. Facing overwhelming odds, Chamberlain slashed his blade through the air and with a power born of courage and fear, the school teacher from Maine roared, “Charge! Charge! CHARGE!” to his men.

The remaining 80 fighting men lifted their voices to match that of their leader. “Charge! Charge!” they cried while tumbling over the wall into a history about which most people in our country have never heard.

But when the Confederate troops saw Chamberlain, the leader of the opposition, mount the wall, they immediately stopped, unsure as to what was happening. And when the Colonel pointed his sword toward them and commanded his men to charge, they turned and ran. Many threw down their loaded weapons.

The rebels were certain that these were not the same soldiers they had been facing. Surely these men have been reinforced, they thought. A beaten regiment would not charge. In less than five minutes, Chamberlain had his sword on the collarbone of a Confederate captain.

“You, sir, are my prisoner,” he stated. The man turned over a fully loaded Navy Colt revolver and offered it to Chamberlain. “Yes, sir,” he answered, “I am.”

Within five more minutes, that ragged group of 80 men under Chamberlain’s command – without any ammunition – captured over 400 soldiers of the enemy.

It is an amazing story, isn’t it? And absolutely true. But here’s what most people never consider . . .

Historians have determined that had Chamberlain not charged that day, the rebels would have won at Gettysburg. Further, historians tell us, had the rebels won at Gettysburg, the South would have won the war . . . and the war itself would have been over by the end of the summer.

One man saved the Union. His name was Joshua Chamberlain.

About the Author

This is an excerpt from The Butterfly Effect, written by award-winning author Andy Andrews. His other books include The Traveler’s Gift, The Seven Decisions, and How to Kill 11 Million People.

 

The Rushmore Report: Lessons from Watergate

Richard M. Nixon resigned as President of the United States 41 years ago. On August 9, 1974 the Watergate scandal resulted in the only presidential resignation in American history. What was otherwise considered a successful presidency, especially in the arena of foreign affairs, would become a scar that many believe has yet to heal. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam and brought the American prisoners home. His visit to the People’s Republic of China opened diplomatic relations between the two nations. Nixon initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union. His administration bolstered states rights and imposed wage and price controls, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, and established the Environmental Protection Agency. The Apollo 11 moon landing brought an end to the moon race, and Nixon was elected to his second term by one of the largest landslide votes in history.

Despite his remarkable accomplishments, Nixon is viewed harshly by most observers. It all comes down to one word – Watergate. On June 17, 1972, five men broke into Democratic headquarters at the Watergate complex in Washington, D.C. The story was brought to light by reporters Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, who relied on an informant know as “Deep Throat,” later revealed to be Mark Felt, associate director at the FBI. A complex cover-up was exposed, and growing evidence surfaced that laid the blame at the feet of the President. On November 17, 1973, during a televised question and answer session with the press, Nixon said, “People have got to know whether or not their President is a crook. Well, I’m not a crook.” Legal battles ensued, and the House Judiciary Committee opened impeachment hearings on May 9, 1974. On July 24, the Supreme Court ordered the release of the full tapes, which would reveal what Nixon knew and when he knew it. Rather than be removed from office, President Nixon resigned on August 9. What are the lessons from Watergate? I see three.

1. What we do in the darkness will be revealed in the light. “All things being exposed in the light are made evident” (Ephesians 5:13). The Old Testament says, “Be sure your sin will find you out” (Numbers 32:23). What can be hidden for a period cannot be hidden forever. History is filled with stories of men and women who thought they had gotten away with something. When five men broke into the Democratic offices, they were delusional in thinking what began as a secret would stay that way.

2. Sin always comes with a price. You and I can choose any path we want, but we do not get to choose the ramifications. When David committed murder and adultery, he pled for God’s forgiveness. While God forgave the sin, that sin still had consequences. Paul said, “Do not be deceived: God is not mocked, for whatever one sows, that will he also reap” (Galatians 6:7). The Watergate scandal resulted in 69 government officials being charged with a crime, and 48 were convicted, including John Mitchell, H. R. Haldeman, John Ehrlichman, and John Dean. On November 30, 1978, Nixon said to the news media in Britain, “I screwed up on Watergate and I paid the price.”

3. The cover-up is worse than the crime. King David tried to cover up his sin, and failed. It was in his blood. The first man to sin was the first man. And he did what most of us do; he shifted the blame. Many historians believe Nixon could have survived Watergate if he had not gone out of his way to erase the tapes and deny knowledge of the acts others had carried out. I remember the time I failed to put my bike up after a ride. I was about eight at the time. My dad confronted me, and I denied being the one who left my bike out. My punishment stung, if you know what I mean. Later that day, my dad told me my punishment was not for leaving the bike out, but for lying about it. The cover-up is always worse than the crime.

The Watergate scandal gripped an entire nation. Even the pardon which President Ford granted his predecessor would not undo the damage. Many historians see Watergate as the official ending to the period of innocence, marked by Camelot and Mayberry. America was no longer the nation she had always been. It was the most painful moment in history for many baby boomers, just coming into their own. But the lessons of Watergate are as old as the human race itself. May these lessons inform us today, lest we repeat the sins of our past as we step into our future.